VARC’s beagle dogs are kept in unpleasant and unsanitary conditions. They live in cages either with concrete floors or wire mesh over dirt floors. When the beagles are being used for a drug trial, an experimenter regularly comes in and removes them from their social group, and takes them to a frightening environment where they are dosed or injected with a drug. Dogs have excellent memories, and will soon get know and fear the routine of being removed from their cages and experimented on – a routine which may continue for weeks or years. At the end of the experiment they may be killed and dissected, or sold to whoever happens to bid for them on Trade Me.